Schiere Nere e altri anarchici tedeschi contro Hitler

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La Resistenza anarchica in Germania è poco nota. Da qualche anno grazie ai lavori di alcuni studiosi anche italiani ne sappiamo di più.

Anarres ne ha parlato con David Bernardini, autore di un libro su Rocker e di un altro libro sulle Schiere Nere.

Ascolta l’intervista con David:

Di seguito un articolo che ha scritto per Anarres

La storia della resistenza anarchica tedesca non è molto conosciuta. Cercherò quindi di fornire molto schematicamente un minimo di orientamento all’interno di un argomento così poco trattato.
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Los Maños : the lads from Aragon ; the story of an anti-Franco action group

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Aguayo Morán, Mariano, Freddy Gomez and Aguayo Morán,. Los Maños : the lads from Aragon ; the story of an anti-Franco action group. Kate Sharpley Library: October 2014. 42 pages. Translated by Paul Sharkey.

Biografía de Carlos Soriano Águila (1905-1980), ferroviario y anarquista

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El 14 de mayo de 1980 muere en Granada (Andalucía, España) el anarquista y anarcosindicalista Carlos Soriano Águila. Había nacido el 2 de abril de 1905 en Palenciana (Córdoba, Andalucía, España). Hijo de un comerciante socialista de clase media, cuando tenía 12 años dejó el pueblo y se fue a vivir con su tío Miguel, ferroviario y jefe de la estación de Las Mellizas (Álora, Málaga, Andalucía, España), viudo y sin hijos. En Alora conoció la que luego sería su primera esposa en 1930. Entre diciembre de 1921 y 1923 estudió en la Academia de Factores Ferroviarios y entre 1923 y 1925 trabajó como factor provisional en la Compañía de Ferrocarriles Andaluces en Écija (Sevilla, Andalucía, España), donde entró en contacto con el movimiento anarquista. Los servicios en Écija le sirvieron para hacer el servicio militar. A partir de 1925 pasó a trabajar en la estación de Bobadilla (Antequera, Málaga, Andalucía, España) y 1928 se afilió al Sindicato Autónomo de Factores (SAF), bastante influido por la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). En 1928 el SAF ingresó en la CNT.
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Prisoners and Partisans: Italian anarchists in the struggle against fascism

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de Agostini, Mauro, Pietro de Piero, Italino Rossi, Marco Rossi and Giorgio Sacchetti. Prisoners and Partisans: Italian anarchists in the struggle against fascism. Kate Sharpley Library: 1999. 37 pages, pamphlet. Translated by Paul Sharkey.
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Ramón Vila Capdevila “Caraquemada”

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Ramón Vila Capdevila, también conocido como “Pasos Largos”, “Maroto”, “Caraquemada” y por “Capitán Raymond” en la resistencia francesa. Nació en Peguera, un pequeño lugar de la comarca del Berguedà, el día 1 de abril de 1908, en el seno de una familia modestísima. De los cuatro o cinco hijos que tuvieron sus padres, la mortandad infantil de aquella época, se cebó con ellos como con la mayoría de las familias, sólo le sobrevivió una hermana, Josefa (Pepeta) que era once años más joven que Ramón.

El sobrenombre de Caraquemada proviene de las quemaduras que se produjo de niño en la cara y mano cuando se incendió la casa donde vivían, pereciendo en el siniestro su hermana pequeña. Era un hombre inquieto de gran movilidad, según testimonio de su hermana, a veces desaparecía una temporada sin que nadie supiera de su paradero.

Robusto, de gran alzada, pasaba del 1,80 mtrs., de fuerte constitución, quiso ser boxeador en la época de Paulino Uzcúdum.

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The Tyranny of the Clock (en/fr)

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By George Woodcock (March 1944)

In no characteristic is existing society in the West so sharply distinguished from the earlier societies, whether of Europe or the East, than in its conception of time. To the ancient Chinese or Greek, to the Arab herdsman or Mexican peon of today, time is represented in the cyclic processes of nature, the alternation of day and night, the passage from season to season. The nomads and farmers measured and still measure their day from sunrise to sunset, and their year in terms of the seedtime and harvest, of the falling leaf and the ice thawing on the lakes and rivers.
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Guerra Eterna alla Gioventù Hitleriana

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I pirati dell’Edelweiss, 1938-1945
Nel giro di pochi mesi dalla loro ascesa al potere in Germania, i nazisti avevano di fatto distrutto quella che veniva percepita come una delle meglio organizzate classi lavoratrici del mondo. Il Partito Comunista e quello Socialista con i loro sindacati, milizie e organizzazioni sociali erano stati messi al bando; gli attivisti erano stati giustiziati, imprigionati, esiliati o costretti alla clandestinità. I quartieri proletari erano isolati e soggiogati dal terrore dei rastrellamenti e delle perquisizioni casa per casa.

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Anarchist Activity in France during World War two

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summary of material from the C.I.R.A., Marseille, BULLETIN No. 21/22 (Summer, 1984), which had the theme Anarchists and the Resistance.

 

Jean Rene Sauliere (alias Andre Arru) was one of the anarchist participants in the French resistance to the Nazis and their Vichy collaborators during World War II. He was born in Bordeaux in 1911 and became an orphan during the First World War. In early adulthood he made his living as a traveling salesman. He belonged to the Bouches-du-Rhone section of the Federation of Free Thinkers, and was elected its president. He also joined the anarchist movement and became a pacifist. Several years before the outbreak of the 1939-1945 conflict, he decided that he would never participate in any war. Like other pacifists and revolutionaries, he saw war as a solution worse than the evil it was supposed to combat. By 1939, Sauliere decided that he would not voluntarily submit to arrest for refusing to serve in the military if called.
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Émile Armand (21 texts)

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Is the Illegalist Anarchist our Comrade?

Émile Armand (1911)

(Notes: From “L’Illégalist anarchiste, est-il notre camarade?” Paris and Orleans, Editions de “l’en-dehors.” [n.d].Translated for marxists.org by Mitchell Abidor.)

 

When we consider the thief as such we can’t say that we find him less human than other classes of society. The members of the great criminal gangs have mutual relations that are strongly marked with communism. If they represent a survival from a prior age, we can also consider them as the precursors of a better age in the future. In all cities they know where to address themselves so they’ll be received and hidden. Up to a certain point they show themselves to be generous and prodigal towards those of their milieu. If they consider the rich as their natural enemies, as a legitimate prey — a point of view quite difficult to contradict — a large number of them are animated by the sprit of Robin Hood; when it comes to the poor many thieves show themselves to have a good heart.

(Edward Carpenter: Civilization, its Cause and Cure.)

I am not an enthusiast of illegalism. I am an alegal. Illegalism is a dangerous last resort for he who engages in it, even temporarily, a last resort that should neither be preached nor advocated. But the question I propose to study is not that of asking whether or not an illegal trade is perilous or not, but if the anarchist who earns his daily bread by resorting to trades condemned by the police and tribunals is right or wrong to expect that an anarchist who accepts working for a boss treat him as a comrade, a comrade whose point of view we defend in broad daylight and who we don’t deny when he falls into the grips of the police or the decisions of judges. (Unless he asks us to remain silent about his case)
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Nous fûmes les rebelles, nous fûmes les brigands, (aubiographie d’un partisan anarchiste de Carrare (Belgrado Pedrini)

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par Belgrado Pedrini

 

 Un certain goût pour la liberté

C’est l’histoire d’un jeune homme autodidacte de 18 ans qui s’engage dans la lutte révolutionnaire. Le parti fasciste est alors installé aux commandes de l’Etat italien depuis près d’une dizaine années. C’est l’histoire d’un anarchiste qui s’arme contre lui bien avant 1943, année du débarquement anglo-américain en Sicile, de la chute provisoire de Mussolini et des débuts officiels de la Résistance. Bien avant la fin de la trêve entre le fascisme brun et le fascisme rouge. Celle qui a par exemple conduit le Parti communiste italien, inféodé à Togliatti, à proposer à ses militants d’infiltrer les indispensables structures de masse créées par les fascistes pour un jour les retourner à son propre service.
Un jour… L’attente dans une nuit sans fin, en cette période qui précède le second conflit mondial. Des poignées d’hommes courageux et déterminés sont pourtant prêts à risquer le tout pour le tout plutôt que de continuer à survivre sous un tel régime. Comme sous n’importe quel régime d’ailleurs, dès lors qu’il est placé sous le règne de l’Etat, de l’exploitation ou de la marchandise.
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